An atomic symbol represents a chemical element of the periodic table. Within a notation, it may not be clear whether a symbol represents a single atom of the denoted element or an elemental substance assembled from atoms of the element. SMILES notations are typically employed in such a way that [Au], for example, may refer to a single gold atom or the elemental substance gold. The interpretation depends on context. CurlySMILES provides various means of distinction and specification by anchoring an annotation to the atomic code. The notation [Au]{!a} encodes a gold atom. Notations [Au]{sd}, [Au]{lq} and [Au]{np}, encode gold as a solid, liquid and nanoparticle, respectively. For other material states, forms and shapes further shape and state annotations are available.
A carbon atom is encodes as [C]{!a}, while the carbon allotropes graphite and diamond are encoded as [C]{crall=graphite} and [C]{crall=diamond}, wherein the annotation marker cr indicates the crystalline state and the value of key all specifies the particular allotrope. Atomic layer graphene is encoded with marker al as [C]{alall=graphene} (also see graphenes and stoichiometric derivatives).
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[1] A. Drefahl: CurlySMILES: a chemical language to customize and annotate encodings of molecular and nanodevice structures. J. Cheminf. 2011, 3:1; doi: 10.1186/1758-2946-3-1.

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